General Information about the NAD
- What are NAD’s major goals and objectives, both generally and specifically?
You can learn about the mission and vision of the NAD at http://www.nad.org/about-us. Besides that, we do have the top priorities that were voted on from the last Conference in 2012 — http://www.nad.org/about-us/priorities. We will determine new priorities this summer at the next Conference in Atlanta, Georgia. In a general sense though, we aim to serve the deaf and hard of hearing community by advocating for their rights.
- How does NAD obtain their fundings?
We rely on membership, sponsorships, donations, and proceeds from legal victories.
- Can NAD continue to grow as an organization? If yes, how so?
Certainly! With the power of social media, various NAD events, and sponsorship opportunities — the NAD will continue to advocate for the deaf and hard of hearing community. Everyone is welcome to join as a member.
- What kinds of services does NAD offer and provide?
In addition to legal advocacy, we also offer legislative training. We have four youth programs (a fifth one — the Miss Deaf America Ambassador Program — will phase out this summer). We have a magazine publication available to members twice a year. We offer information and advocacy support to deaf and hard of hearing individuals on many issues, including but not limited to: educational rights; communication access at hospitals, doctors’ offices, courthouses, and lawyers offices; waivers for Commercial Driver’s Licenses; housing options; and many more. We have two main events, both biennial — one is our national conference that occurs during even-numbered years, the other event is our NAD Leadership Training Conference which is held during odd-numbered years.
- What kinds of clients does NAD mainly receive?
The majority of our clients are deaf and hard of hearing, and we also provide services to parents and other family members of deaf individuals as well as other individuals and organizations that are interested in supporting the rights of deaf and hard of hearing people.
- How do I become a member of NAD?
There are two ways for you to join or renew your individual NAD membership. This webpage will take you to a page with online and PDF forms options.
There are four Individual Membership categories:
- Regular- $40
- Senior- $25 (age 60+)
- Youth- $25 (age 18-30)
- International- $60
- I want to donate to the NAD, how?
You can donate online or mail your donation. Please go to this webpage to complete the form or to print the form. If you are mailing your donation via certified mail, please ensure that you have NAD’s address correct:
National Association of the Deaf
8630 Fenton Street, Suite 820
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3819
- Does the NAD provide financial assistance, student loans, or sponsorships?
The NAD does not provide financial assistance for the purchase of hearing aids, adaptive equipment, goods, or services. We also do not have resources for student loans. Since the NAD is a non-profit organization that seeks funds and donations to support its own operations and events, the NAD is unable to support other causes and events.
Community and Culture
- What is wrong with the use of these terms “deaf-mute,” “deaf and dumb,” or “hearing impaired”?
Deaf and hard of hearing people have the right to choose what they wish to be called, either as a group or on an individual basis. Overwhelmingly, deaf and hard of hearing people prefer to be called “deaf” or “hard of hearing.” Nearly all organizations for the deaf use the term” deaf and hard of hearing,” and the NAD is no exception. The World Federation of the Deaf (WFD) also voted in 1991 to use “deaf and hard of hearing” as an official designation.
Yet there are many people who persist in using terms other than “deaf” and “hard of hearing.” The alternative terms are often seen in print, heard on radio and television, and picked up in casual conversations all over. These terms include “deaf and dumb,” “deaf-mute,” and “hearing-impaired.” The majority of deaf and hard of hearing people feel that these terms are outdated or offensive. Please show your respect by refusing to use these outdated or offensive terms. When in doubt, ask the individual how they identify themselves.
- How do I find out about ASL classes?
Sign language classes can be found at community colleges, universities, libraries, churches, organizations/clubs for the deaf, and more places. You can practice your signs with people who are deaf or hard of hearing and who know ASL. Generally, people who know ASL are patient about showing new signers how to sign different things, the correct way to sign something, and usually, they will slow down their signing so you can understand them too. They are also willing to repeat words or statement if you do not understand them at the first time (or even second) time.
- How can I be an ally for deaf culture and American Sign Language?
There are many opportunities to show the positive advantages to everyone when learning or using American Sign Language (ASL). It takes an individual to make a difference, whether that person is a member or an ally. Despite all the challenges, we must not give up.
You can find our position statement at http://www.nad.org/issues/american-sign-language/position-statement-american-sign-language-2008.
For those who want to learn sign, please see http://www.nad.org/issues/american-sign-language/learning-american-sign-language.
This is an important issue. After all, there are 48 million deaf and hard of hearing people in the United States — we should all work together to ensure that every deaf and hard of hearing person is included, whether they use ASL or use a different way to communicate.
You ask what would be the best way to advocate for ASL? Join the NAD, join your state association, attend relevant events, inspire others how they too can be an ally for ASL, share relevant articles about ASL online via social media, and more. There are so many opportunities but you have already made the first step in recognizing this need. We welcome you to join our fight for equality. If you’d like to become a member, join us at www.nad.org/join.
- What is the preferred term when referring to someone who is deaf? Deaf? Hearing-impaired? Are they interchangeable? Why/why not?
Deaf and hard of hearing people have the right to choose what they wish to be called, either as a group or on an individual basis. Overwhelmingly, deaf and hard of hearing people prefer to be called “deaf” or “hard of hearing.” The National Association of the Deaf strongly urges the use of “deaf and hard of hearing” when referring to the community or individuals in the community. Many in our community find other terms outdated and/or offensive including but not limited to: “hearing impaired,” “deaf and dumb,” and “deaf-mute.”
- Which is preferable — deaf child or child who is deaf?
While many in the disability community emphasize “people first” language, the deaf and hard of hearing community prefers to place an emphasis on our culture first. Consequently, many in our community prefer to use “deaf child” or “hard of hearing child” rather than “a child who is deaf.”
Also is deafness considered a “disability” or would a child BE “special needs”?
The NAD advocates for the civil, human and linguistic rights of deaf and hard of hearing people. The NAD believes that being deaf is not a disability but rather a cultural identity; however, it is necessary to utilize the current legal framework which extends rights and protections to people with disabilities to achieve equal rights. The rights accorded by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and many other laws (both federal and state) provide deaf and hard of hearing people with ways to achieve communication access on the condition that being deaf or hard of hearing is considered a disability. For that reason, the NAD recognizes that being deaf or hard of hearing is considered a legal disability to secure rights necessary to achieve equality and communication access. “Special needs” is a phrase typically used in “special education” and the NAD prefers to focus on ensuring every deaf and hard of hearing child receives an appropriate placement with the services necessary to ensure a quality education. This includes ensuring that every deaf and hard of hearing child has an appropriate Individualized Education Program that reflects each child’s unique communication needs and development.
- What is NAD’s position regarding cochlear implants?
NAD recognizes that deafness is diverse, especially in the choices that deaf adults and parents of deaf children continue to make about the range of communication and assistive technology options. NAD welcomes all individuals regardless of race, religion, ethnic background, socioeconomic status, cultural orientation, mode of communication, preferred language use, hearing status, educational background, and use of technologies.
Technology has been evolving and is now playing an important role in levelling the playing field for deaf and hard of hearing people. NAD recognizes that, like other technological aids, cochlear implant has been evolving and they will certainly change in the future. Cochlear implants are not appropriate for all deaf and hard of hearing children and adults. Cochlear implantation is a technology that is to be used as tool for some forms of communication, not a cure for deafness. Cochlear implants provide sensitive hearing, but do not, by themselves, impart the ability to understand spoken language through listening alone. In addition, they do not guarantee the development of cognition or reduce the benefit of emphasis on parallel visual language and literacy development.
The NAD recognizes the rights of parents to make informed choices for their deaf and hard of hearing children, respects their choice to use cochlear implants and all other assistive devices, and strongly supports the development of the child and of language and literacy.
The NAD wrote a position statement on this subject. If you are interested in reading the entire statement, please go to http://www.nad.org/issues/technology/assistive-listening/cochlear-implants.
Where can I find more information about statistics/data about the deaf community (employment, unemployment, population, gender, age, etc.)?
The NAD does not have statistics or research data about the deaf or hard of hearing community. Depending on the information needed, it is suggested that one review the following websites
- U.S. Census Bureau (American Community Survey)
- National Institute on Deafness and Communicative Disorders (National Institute on Health)
Law and Advocacy
- What does the NAD Law and Advocacy Center do?
The NAD Law and Advocacy Center advocates on public policy issues of concern to the deaf and hard of hearing community, particularly at the national level, and often in collaboration with other national organizations. We provide general legal information about deaf-related issues and discrimination law. We also respond to hundreds of emails and calls every month for information, advocacy support, legal advice, representation, and referral. Our attorneys represent individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing in carefully selected disability discrimination civil rights cases.
- Does the NAD Law and Advocacy Center have offices in other states?
No. The NAD Law and Advocacy Center has only one office, located in Silver Spring, Maryland.
- Does the NAD Law and Advocacy Center help hard of hearing people too?
Yes. The NAD Law and Advocacy Center advocates on behalf of and responds to inquiries from deaf, hard of hearing, late-deafened, and deaf-blind individuals, and their families and friends. Our attorneys also represent individuals who are deaf, hard of hearing, late-deafened, or deaf-blind in carefully selected disability discrimination civil rights cases.
- Do I have to pay for NAD Law and Advocacy Center legal services?
There is no charge for routine inquiries, information, advocacy support, advice, and referral. Legal representation in carefully selected disability discrimination civil rights cases by NAD Law and Advocacy Center attorneys is provided in accordance with the terms of an attorney-client representation agreement. Courts may award attorney fees and costs (other expenses) to the prevailing (successful) party in civil rights cases. Settlement agreements may also provide for legal fees, costs, or other awards.
- Will the NAD Law and Advocacy Center take my disability discrimination case?
The NAD Law and Advocacy Center provides legal representation in a few carefully selected disability discrimination civil rights cases. Our attorneys evaluate each complaint individually, considering the law and the facts of each case. Our attorneys may co-counsel with attorneys who are licensed in other states, but only on a limited, court-approved, case-by-case basis. Our attorneys can also consult with attorneys who represent deaf or hard of hearing clients.
We also focuses on public policy issues, particularly at the national level, and provides individuals with information, advocacy support, advice, and referral.
We are proud of what we have accomplished with one full-time and two part-time attorneys, plus one attorney for two years (2007-2009) through the Skadden Fellowship Foundation. With more resources, the NAD Law and Advocacy Center would be able to provide more direct advocacy action and legal services to individuals who need or request assistance. In the meantime, please use the legal and advocacy information on the NAD website, including Tips for More Effective Advocacy and How to Find and Work with a Lawyer.
- How do I find a lawyer or advocate in my area?
The NAD Law and Advocacy Center does not keep a list of lawyers in the United States.
Here are some tips to help you find an advocate or lawyer in your state who may be able to help you with discrimination or other legal problem:
- Contact your state’s office that serves people who are deaf or hard of hearing, or the office that serves people with disabilities, for advocacy support and information about advocacy and legal services in your state.
- The National Disability Rights Network (NDRN) is the largest provider of legally-based disability discrimination advocacy services in the United States. There is at least one NDRN office in every state and territory. The nickname for these offices is “Protection and Advocacy” or “P&A.” Go to www.ndrn.org to find the P&A office in your state.
- Your state’s P&A office may be able to help you — if you have a disability discrimination question or problem.
- If your state’s P&A office cannot help you, they may be able to give you names of lawyers in your state who may be able to help you.
- You may prefer a lawyer who is deaf or hard of hearing, a lawyer who understands and is familiar with deaf and hard of hearing people. However, you need a lawyer who is experienced in your type of legal problem. Like doctors, most lawyers have expertise in specific areas of the law. For example, a lawyer who defends people accused of a crime might not be a good choice if you need a divorce. When you contact lawyers, ask them if they have experience with your kind of legal problem. If they do not, ask them if they can recommend a lawyer who can handle your kind of legal problem.
- If you and your lawyer have trouble communicating, ask the lawyer to provide an interpreter, captioning, or other way to communicate effectively with you. If the lawyer does not know about the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), ask the lawyer to contact the NAD Law and Advocacy Center.
- Search the Internet for your state’s name and the words “bar association” (the association for lawyers licensed in your state) (for example, search for “Maryland Bar Association”). Most state bar associations have a “lawyer referral” program. They may give you the names of several lawyers who handle your type of legal problem. Often, there will be a low cost for the first consultation. After you meet the lawyer, the lawyer will explain his or her usual fee arrangements and you can decide if you want to hire that lawyer. If you are unemployed or have a very low income, you may be eligible for free legal help from your local legal aid society, legal services office, or a nearby law school’s legal clinic program. If you are charged with a crime, you may be eligible for a court-appointed lawyer or public defender.
- See How to Find and Work with a Lawyer or contact the NAD Law and Advocacy Center.
- Can I hire an NAD attorney to handle my divorce or other legal problem?
No. The legal services of the NAD Law and Advocacy Center attorneys are limited to disability discrimination civil rights issues and cases.
- How do I file a discrimination complaint?
The NAD strongly encourages every individual – including you – to file complaints when you experience discrimination. When no one complains, the discrimination will probably continue. When no one complains, enforcement agencies don’t know there is a problem and will not take steps to correct it.
It is up to all of us to try to correct discriminatory practices. When you file a complaint, you also raise awareness that there is discrimination taking place. When many people file complaints, enforcement agencies are more likely to take action to stop the discrimination.
How and where to file a complaint depends on many factors. Most complaint rules have time limits for filing a complaint, so don’t wait to file your complaint later. Here are some resources to learn general information about filing complaints:
For more information, please contact the NAD Law and Advocacy Center.
- Employment – www.eeoc.gov (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission)
- State and local government programs and services – http://www.ada.gov/t2cmpfrm.htm (U.S. Department of Justice) or http://www.ada.gov/investag.htm (list of federal agencies that investigate disability discrimination complaints against state and local government programs that provide education, health care, housing, transportation, and other services)
- Public accommodations, for-profit and non-profit businesses – http://www.ada.gov/t3compfm.htm (U.S. Department of Justice)
- Federally funded programs – http://www.ada.gov/investag.htm (list of federal agencies that investigate disability-related discrimination complaints against federally funded programs that provide education, health care, housing, transportation, and other services)
- Television closed captioning – http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/dro/tips_on_filing_cc_complaint.html (Federal Communications Commission)
- Access to emergency information on television — http://esupport.fcc.gov/complaints.htm (Federal Communications Commission)
- I am a service provider. Do I need to provide and pay for interpreter or other services for a deaf or hard of hearing client/patient?
Businesses and services providers must ensure effective communication with people who are deaf or hard of hearing under Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). This federal law applies to a wide range of “places of public accommodation,” including retail stores and the wide range of service businesses such as hotels, theaters, restaurants, doctors’ and lawyers’ offices, optometrists, dentists, banks, insurance agencies, museums, parks, libraries, day care centers, recreational programs, social service agencies and private schools. It covers both profit and non-profit organizations. Places of public accommodation must give persons with disabilities an equal opportunity to participate in and to benefit from their services. They must modify their policies and practices when necessary to provide equal access to services and facilities. In order to provide equal access, all public accommodations are required to provide auxiliary aids and services, such as qualified interpreters or captioning, when necessary to ensure effective communication.
Auxiliary aids and services must be provided unless the entity can demonstrate that doing so would fundamentally alter the nature of the service, or would constitute an undue burden (significant difficulty or expense). Whether or not a particular auxiliary aid or service constitutes an undue burden depends on a variety of factors, including the nature and cost of the auxiliary aid or service, and the overall financial and other resources of the business. The undue burden standard is applied on a case-by-case basis. Undue burden is not measured by the amount of income the business is receiving from a deaf or hard of hearing client, patient, customer, or member of the public. Instead, undue burden is measured by the overall financial impact on the whole entity. Therefore, it is possible for a business to be responsible for providing auxiliary aids and services even if it does not make a sale or receive income from a deaf or hard of hearing person, if the cost of the auxiliary aid or service would not be an undue burden on its overall operation.
For more information, see ADA Title III: Public Accommodations.
State and local government agencies and service providers must ensure effective communication with people who are deaf or hard of hearing under Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). This federal law applies to all types of state and local government agencies, including courts, schools, social service agencies, legislatures, commissions and councils, recreational facilities, libraries, and state/county/city departments and agencies of all kinds. It applies to activities that are administered directly by government agencies, and to activities that are carried out by private subcontractors. Under the ADA, state and local agencies are required to give equal access and equally effective services to people with disabilities. They may not deny people an opportunity to participate in their programs, or give them an opportunity that is less effective than the opportunity given to others. Often, the public entity must provide qualified interpreters, captioning, and other auxiliary aids to ensure effective communication with deaf or hard of hearing people. The appropriate auxiliary aid depends on many factors, such as the type of communication used by the individual and the situation in which the communication occurs. An auxiliary aid that is appropriate for one person, or in one context, may be useless in another setting or for a person with a different type of hearing loss.
For more information, see ADA Title II: State and Local Government Services.
Public and private entities and service providers that are recipients of federal financial assistance have obligations to ensure effective communication with people who are deaf or hard of hearing under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which provides:
No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States…shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance…
29 U.S.C. § 794(a).
These obligations under Section 504 are very similar to the obligations under the ADA described above.
For more information, please contact the NAD Law and Advocacy Center.
- How do I file a complaint about being discriminated?
Please visit the link below. You will see lists of more links and be able to select one that applies to your situation. You will learn how to file a complaint. Please note that this section does not cover all possible situations. You may have additional rights under federal and state law.
Filing a complaint requires you to tell a story about what happened. Most times, a complaint is a letter explaining the incident. However, some agencies have complaint form. Your complaint may include a copy of any documents that show what happened, such as e-mail communications, letters, notes, pictures faxes, and video recordings. If you need help writing or filing your complaint, you can contact the agency that handles your kind of complaint.
- I’m a deaf person studying in the medical field, but my school or company does not know how to accommodate me, what do I do?
We recommend that you contact a group of deaf medical professionals as they may have ideas on such resources, http://amphl.org/
- TRS Public Accommodations
The NAD seeks to ensure that all places of public accommodations understand their legal obligations with respect to dealing with deaf and hard of hearing individuals who use telecommunications relay services (TRS). The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has clear mandates requiring places of public accommodation to provide effective communication to clients who are deaf and hard of hearing, including over the telephone. Public accommodations who run afoul of such provisions are subject to legal action and have been the focus of investigation by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ).
- What are the NAD Youth Programs?
The NAD Youth Programs include Junior NAD, Youth Leadership Camp (YLC), Youth Ambassador Program, and the College Bowl. Through its Youth Programs, the NAD strives to develop scholarship, citizenship, and leadership qualities.
- How do I set-up a Junior NAD Chapter?
You can set up a chapter by contacting the NAD Director of Youth Programs via our website, www.nad.org/contactus, and request a Junior NAD Chapter Kit.
- How do college students get involved with College Bowl?
For eligibility information, contact NAD Youth Programs Coordinator. If you need to fill out the preliminary team application, please go to this web form.
- My state school for the deaf does not have a Junior NAD Chapter. Can I still attend the Youth Leadership Camp (YLC)?
Yes, with understanding that you will establish a Junior NAD Chapter in your school the following autumn. The NAD Youth Programs Coordinator will help you establish the chapter. YLC experience will help you to make the chapter active throughout the year and in the future.
- My state school for the deaf does not support youth programs. What can I do?
You are encouraged to contact your State association for help. You can find contact information for your State Association at http://www.nad.org/community/state-association-affiliates
- How can I advertise my product or services?
The NADMag is a full colored magazine that is published two times per year. We accept display ads for products/services as well as employment ads. You can find advertising information and rates on our website at http://www.nad.org/advertise.
- Do you have online advertisements?
Yes, we have a “website partner” opportunity that allows your company’s logo/banner to be shown on our website, monthly eblast, and more. Contact firstname.lastname@example.org with your interest.
- What and how can I order books?
The NAD publishes and distributes titles published by the NAD. We do not have a catalog or offer online ordering at this time. If you are looking for a specific title that we have published, please contact us at email@example.com. We will send you pricing information and availability for the titles requested.